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Bihac

Bihać, a city on the river Una, is located in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city lies in the spacious Bihac basin, which west and southwest closes the Plješivica Mountain and its slopes Debeljaca and Somišlja, while in the east and northeast the Grmeč Mountain and its slopes Ljutoč, Jadovnik and Gredoviti vrh limit. Bihać has an altitude of 231 meters. Thanks to favorable geographical and climatic conditions, this area was inhabited even in the prehistoric period. Archaeological research has been confirmed. The result of these researches is the discovery at the necropolis Jezerine in Pritoci, at the confluence of the settlement in Ripč, the necropolises in Ribić and the shrine of the Japoda tribe at the source of Privilice. In addition to these discoveries, archaeologists also found the remains of the towns, settlements on the high aligned head (Izčić-gradina, Kulište near Bajrić) in the vicinity of Bihać.

At the entrance or in the immediate vicinity of the city are visible tumulus, or prehistoric graves (Palež near Spahić, Zapoljak-Crkvina near Tihotina and Dubrovnik near Srbljan). The largest number of gardens in the Bihać area originated in the old Iron Age (VIII-I century BC). In the younger Iron Age (the 5th century BC) in the vicinity of Bihać there is one of the centers of the Illyrian tribe Japoda. They are 35 years old pr.n.e. to obey the Roman military leader Oktavian.

The most important monuments left by the Japaids in the Bihac area were stone urns, made in the shape of crates. In them, the Japers put the ashes of their burned dead. Hours were found at Humacka Glavica, in Cavkici, Golubic, Pritoci, Ribic, Ripc and Mali Zalozje. On the urns, besides the drawings, there were also Roman inscriptions on the basis of which the name of the deceased who was buried in them could be found. From the Roman era there are numerous tombstones, inscriptions, reliefs, devotions to the deities and remains of Roman buildings. Thus, in Golubic, six Roman monuments were used, which were used to cover the water supply system in Zegar, while the remains of Roman buildings were found in Brekovica, Golubic, Ripc and Mali Zalozje. In Golubić, Mitras’s relief, two devoted gods to Mithras, and one relief with the image of Herakle were found. From the Roman period significant archaeological finds represent Roman money made of bronze and japodian inscriptions found in Brekovica, Čavkići, Ćehićima, Humačka glavica, Kraljevi, Pritoci, Ribić and Mali Založje. At the beginning of VII. centuries Bihac area began to settle Slavs. The first towns around the Una River, according to historical sources, date back to the mid-13th century.

As the most important medieval fortress of Pounja, Bihać was first mentioned in 1260 as the property of the citrusic Topuska abbey. This is confirmed by the document of the Hungarian-Croatian king Bela IV. from 26.2.1260. by which he gives to the Ottoman Abbey the property of the King for the maintenance of the city on the island of Sv. Ladislava. In the preserved historical documents, the city on the island was recorded under various names: Bihig, Byheg, Buch, Bichich, Bihag, Vyhych, Bywhergh Wyhugh, which marks the royal good. By 1262 Bihać became a free municipium with all the rights of the “free royal city”. This status has enabled him to significantly faster economic and traffic development. There is not enough information about the city’s appearance in the 13th century. What we know is that in that period Bihać had seven churches, among which the largest was the city church of St. Antuna (Ante). In this period are also mentioned the Dominicans who had their monastery near the city church (mentioned already in 1266). Therefore, most historians consider that the church of St. Antuna was their church.

With the arrival of the Ottomans in 1592, this church was converted into a mosque, called Fethiye (fethiye-won). Apart from the Dominicans in the 14th century in Bihać, the Franciscans who had the Church of St. Mary and her monastery. On the basis of later data, especially those from the 16th century, it is concluded that Bihac was built on an artificial island, which is threatened by double ramparts that contain numerous loops with round and quadrangular towers. In addition, he had a dome roof that can be seen on the medieval coat of arms of the town of Bihać. The city went through the three doors, those to Izačić, Zavalje and Uni. Thanks to a glagolitic document from the end of the 14th century, we learn that the seal of medieval Bihać consists of three towers, with a middle tower that had a flag. The same motive had the medieval city of Bihac.


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